Foreign relations of Peru

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Peru/Transnational issues)

Peru is an important first-tier state in South America,[1] Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1945,[2] and Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Alberto Fujimori's tainted re-election to a third term in June 2000 strained Peru's relations with the United States and with many Latin American and European countries, mainly small countries like Yemen but relations improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001.

Peru is planning full integration into the Andean Free Trade Area. In addition, Peru is a standing member of APEC and the World Trade Organization, and is an active participant in negotiations toward a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).

Diplomatic relations[edit]

List of countries which Peru maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date
1  Colombia 6 July 1822[3]
2  Chile 8 October 1822[4]
3  Mexico 23 January 1823[5]
4  United Kingdom 10 October 1823[6]
5  Bolivia 24 June 1826[7]
6  Brazil 3 February 1827[8]
7  United States 21 May 1827[9]
8  Ecuador 26 September 1831[10]
9  Venezuela 23 December 1833[11]
10  Denmark 18 May 1848[12]
11  Belgium 16 May 1850[13]
12  Costa Rica 28 April 1851[14]
13  Uruguay 21 April 1852[15]
14  Portugal 26 March 1853[16]
15  Guatemala 20 April 1857[17]
16  El Salvador 10 July 1857[18]
17  Nicaragua 5 October 1857[19]
18  Paraguay 5 February 1858[20]
19  France 9 March 1861[21]
20  Italy 25 February 1864[22]
21  Japan 21 August 1873[23]
22  Dominican Republic 6 April 1874[24]
 Holy See 1877[25]
23  Spain 15 November 1879[26]
24   Switzerland 1884[27]
25  Argentina 20 December 1885[28]
26  Cuba 11 January 1905[29]
27  Panama 2 March 1908[30]
28  Netherlands 13 May 1921[31]
29  Czech Republic 11 July 1922[32]
30  Norway 3 August 1923[33]
31  Poland 6 September 1923[34]
32  Sweden 11 February 1938[35]
33  Romania 10 October 1939[36]
34  Haiti 13 December 1939[37]
35  Canada 30 January 1944[38]
36  Austria 2 November 1949[39]
37  Lebanon 1949[40]
38  Germany 28 June 1951[41]
39  Turkey 1952[42]
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 15 April 1953[43]
40  Honduras 21 December 1957[44]
41  Israel 1 January 1958[45]
42  Luxembourg 16 June 1962[46]
43  Australia 1 March 1963[47]
44  India 25 March 1963[48]
45  Finland 29 March 1963[49]
46  South Korea 1 April 1963[50]
47  Egypt 7 October 1963[51]
48  Morocco 18 June 1964[52]
49  Ivory Coast 18 August 1964[53]
50  Thailand 10 November 1965[54]
51  Greece 3 December 1965[55]
52  Cyprus 12 September 1966[56]
53  Ethiopia 10 September 1967[57]
54  Iceland 14 November 1967[58]
55  Trinidad and Tobago 5 February 1968[59]
56  Barbados 29 February 1968[60]
57  Russia 1 February 1969[61]
58  Hungary 16 April 1969[62]
59  Bulgaria 18 April 1969[63]
60  Serbia 12 December 1969[64]
61  Jamaica 29 April 1970[65]
62  Zambia 5 October 1970[66]
63  Nigeria 5 July 1971[67]
64  Guyana 17 July 1971[68]
65  China 2 November 1971[69]
66  Albania 6 December 1971[70]
67  Algeria 10 March 1972[71]
68  New Zealand 4 July 1972[72]
69  Iran 20 November 1973[73]
70  Libya 28 April 1974[74]
71  Pakistan 1 September 1974[75]
72  Philippines 30 November 1974[76]
73  Guinea 8 January 1975[77]
74  Sri Lanka 17 March 1975[78]
75  Republic of the Congo 12 July 1975[79]
76  Tanzania 12 July 1975[79]
77  Democratic Republic of the Congo 3 August 1975[80]
78  Indonesia 12 August 1975[81]
79  Syria 16 August 1975[82]
80  Kuwait 1 December 1975[83]
81  Iraq 1975[84]
82    Nepal 28 January 1976[85]
83  Kenya 25 February 1976[86]
84  Cambodia 31 May 1976[87]
85  Malta 27 April 1977[88]
86  Suriname 22 June 1978[89]
87  Singapore 27 October 1980[90]
88  Equatorial Guinea 28 April 1981[91]
89  Bangladesh February 1983[92]
90  Grenada 16 March 1983[93][94]
91  Papua New Guinea 14 September 1983[95]
92  Kiribati 29 October 1983[96]
93  Fiji 1983[97]
94  Tonga 20 January 1984[98]
95  Samoa 23 January 1984[99]
96  Nauru 1984[100]
97  Antigua and Barbuda 24 June 1985[101]
98  Angola 6 September 1985[102]
99  Jordan 21 October 1985[103]
100  Saint Lucia 1985[104]
101  Mozambique 25 February 1986[105]
102  Dominica 18 March 1986[106]
103  Saudi Arabia 19 March 1986[107]
104  Malaysia 24 April 1986[108]
105  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5 May 1986[105]
106  Oman 14 May 1986[105]
107  Vanuatu 30 May 1986[105]
108  United Arab Emirates 17 June 1986[109]
109  Guinea-Bissau 29 September 1986[110]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (suspended) 5 May 1987[111]
110  Ghana 23 June 1987[105]
111  Cape Verde 1 November 1988[112]
112  North Korea 15 December 1988[113]
113  Maldives 6 February 1989[105]
114  Myanmar 17 April 1989[105]
115  Laos 27 April 1989[105]
116  São Tomé and Príncipe 4 May 1989[105]
117  Sierra Leone 15 May 1989[105]
118  Eswatini 8 June 1989[105]
119  Lesotho 21 July 1989[105]
120  Qatar 7 November 1989[114]
121  Brunei 1 June 1990[115]
122  Mauritania 19 June 1990[105]
123  Namibia 11 July 1990[105]
124  Marshall Islands 14 November 1991[116]
125  Belize 27 November 1991[105]
126  Seychelles 15 January 1992[105]
127  Federated States of Micronesia 7 May 1992[105]
128  Ukraine 7 May 1992[105]
129  Armenia 9 September 1992[117]
130  Slovenia 9 September 1992[118]
131  Slovakia 1 January 1993[119]
132  Croatia 12 January 1993[120]
133  South Africa 28 July 1993[121]
134  Vietnam 14 November 1994[105]
135  Estonia 27 July 1995[122]
136  Moldova 11 August 1995[123]
137  Azerbaijan 25 June 1996[105]
138  Liechtenstein 5 July 1996[124]
139  Latvia 23 July 1996[105]
140  Kazakhstan 6 February 1997[125]
141  Belarus 19 February 1997[126]
142  Turkmenistan 7 May 1997[127]
143  Mongolia 30 May 1997[105]
144  Andorra 3 June 1997[105]
145  Lithuania 9 June 1997[105]
146  Bosnia and Herzegovina 23 January 1998[128]
147  Mali 16 July 1998[129]
148  Ireland 27 June 1999[130]
149  Kyrgyzstan 2 July 1999[105]
150  Uzbekistan 22 December 1999[105]
151  Tajikistan 21 January 2000[105]
152  East Timor 30 September 2002[131]
153  Zimbabwe 12 December 2004[132]
154  North Macedonia 29 June 2005[105]
155  San Marino 29 September 2005[133]
156  Montenegro 12 September 2006[134]
157  Bahrain 22 September 2009[105]
158  Georgia 14 January 2010[105]
159  Monaco 13 October 2010[135]
 State of Palestine 12 November 2010[136]
160  Solomon Islands 14 March 2012[105]
161  Tuvalu 29 March 2012[105]
162  Afghanistan 27 September 2012[137]
 Cook Islands September 2017[138]
163  Benin 22 November 2017[139]
164  Rwanda 7 December 2017[140]
165  Togo 18 December 2017[141]
166  Djibouti 28 February 2018[142]
167  Palau 14 February 2019[143]
 Niue 13 July 2020[144]
168  Uganda 4 June 2021[105]
169  Saint Kitts and Nevis 24 April 2023[145]
170  Gabon 3 August 2023[146]
171  Bahamas Unknown
172  Botswana Unknown
173  Burkina Faso Unknown
174  Cameroon Unknown
175  Niger Unknown
176  Senegal Unknown
177  Sudan Unknown
178  Tunisia Unknown

Bilateral relations[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 10 March 1972

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 March 1972[147]

 Angola 6 September 1985
  • Angola and Peru established diplomatic relations on 6 September 1985[149]
  • Angola is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.[148]
 Burkina Faso March 1966
Congo-Brazzaville 12 July 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 July 1975[79]
  • The Republic of the Congo is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.[148]
 Egypt 7 October 1963 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 October 1963.[150]
 Ghana 23 June 1987

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 June 1987[151]

 Kenya 25 February 1976

Peru formerly had an embassy from 1987 to 1990. The embassy in Nairobi was re-opened in 2023.[152]

  • Kenya is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  • Peru has an embassy in Nairobi.
 Libya 28 April 1974 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 April 1974.[153]
 Morocco 18 June 1964 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 June 1964[154]
 Namibia 11 July 1990

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 July 1990[155]

  • Peru established relations with SWAPO, preceding Namibian independence.[156]
  • Namibia is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.[148]
 Nigeria 5 July 1971 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 July 1971[157]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 5 May 1987, broken 9 September 1996
8 September 2021, broken 18 August 2022
15 September 2022, broken 8 September 2023[158]
  • The SADR has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru established formal relations with the SADR on 5 May 1987,[159] under Alan García, but recognition existed since 16 August 1984. Said relations expired on 9 September 1996, with Peru taking a neutral part in the Western Sahara conflict.[160][161][162]
  • On September 8, 2021, Peru and the SADR re-established their bilateral relations,[163] but the former again severed them on August 16, 2022,[164] renovating them one month later.[165]
 South Africa 28 July 1993 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 July 1993[166]
  • Peru has an embassy in Pretoria. A Consulate was also maintained in Cape Town which closed in 1985.[167]
  • South Africa is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Santiago.[148]
 Sudan October 7, 1988
 Tanzania 12 August 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 August 1975[79]
 Tunisia September 1966
  • Peru is accredited to Tunisia from its embassy in Algiers.
  • Tunisia is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Buenos Aires.[148]
 Zambia 5 October 1970 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 October 1970[168]
  • Peru is accredited to Zambia from its embassy in Pretoria. It previously maintained an embassy in Lusaka until 1990.[169]
  • Zambia is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasilia.[148]
 Zimbabwe March 1986
  • Peru is accredited to Zimbabwe from its embassy in Pretoria. It previously maintained an embassy in Harare until 1990.[169]
  • Zimbabwe is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasilia.[148]

Americas[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 10 July 1822
 Bolivia 24 June 1826 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 June 1826[172]
 Brazil 3 February 1827 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 February 1827.[173]
 Canada 30 January 1944 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 January 1944[174]
 Chile 8 October 1822 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 8 October 1822[178]

In November 1999, Peru and Chile signed three agreements which put to rest the remaining obstacles holding up implementation of the 1929 Treaty of Lima, which officially ended the 1879 War of the Pacific. In December 1999, President Alberto Fujimori made the first visit ever to Chile by a Peruvian head of state.

Relations between the two nations have since mostly recovered. In 2005, the Peruvian Congress unilaterally approved a law which increased the stated sea limit with Chile. This law superseded the Peruvian supreme decree 781 for same purpose from 1947, which had autolimited its maritime border to geographical parallels only. Peru's position was that the border has never been fully demarcated, but Chile disagreed reminding on treaties in 1952 and 1954 between the countries, which supposedly defined seaborder. The border problem has still not been solved. However, Chile's Michelle Bachelet and Peru's Alan García have established a positive diplomatic relationship, and it is very unlikely any hostilities will break out because of the dispute.

Nevertheless, in early April 2007, Peruvian nationalistic sectors, mainly represented by left wing ex-presidential candidate Ollanta Humala decided to congregate at 'hito uno' right at the border with Chile, in a symbolic attempt to claim sovereignty over a maritime area known in Peru as Mar de Grau (Grau's Sea) just west of the Chilean city of Arica. Peruvian police stopped a group of nearly 2,000 people just 10 km from the border, preventing them from reaching their intended destination. Despite these incidents, the presidents of both Chile and Peru have confirmed their intentions to improve the relationships between the two countries, mainly fueled by the huge amount of commercial exchange between both countries' private sectors.

 Colombia 6 July 1822 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 July 1822.[179]
 Costa Rica 28 April 1851

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 April 1851[180]

 Cuba 11 January 1905 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 January 1905.[181]
  • Peru had relations with Cuba prior to 1972, but broke them off in the 1960s.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Lima.[148]
  • Peru has an embassy in Havana.
 Dominican Republic 6 April 1874 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 April 1874[182]
 Ecuador 26 September 1831 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 September 1831[183]
  • In October 1998, Peru and Ecuador signed a peace accord which definitively resolved border differences which had, over the years, resulted in armed conflict. Peru and Ecuador are now jointly coordinating an internationally sponsored border integration project. The United States Government, as one of four guarantor states, was actively involved in facilitating the 1998 peace accord between Peru and Ecuador and remains committed to its implementation. The United States has pledged $40 million to the Peru-Ecuador border integration project and another $4 million to support Peruvian and Ecuadorian demining efforts along their common border.
  • In November 2009, Peru made an agreement with Ecuador in which Peru would export between 40 and 50 megawatts of electricity until April 2010 in order to help Ecuador with its energy crisis.[184] Rafael Correa, Ecuador's president, expressed his gratitude to Peru for its generous aid during Ecuador's energy crisis.[185]
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Lima.[148]
  • Peru has an embassy in Quito and a consulate in Guayaquil.
 El Salvador 10 July 1857 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 July 1857[186]
 Guatemala 20 April 1857

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 April 1857[187]

 Guyana 17 July 1971
 Haiti 1929
 Honduras 5 August 1856
 Jamaica 29 April 1970 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 April 1970[192]
  • Jamaica has a consulate in Lima
  • Jamaica is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Caracas.[148]
 Mexico 23 January 1823 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 January 1823[193]

Peru and Mexico have historically had a unique relationship solidly based on that they share two of the most significant ancient cultures in the Americas. Both countries have expressed solidarity over the need to defend the recovery of cultural and archaeological heritage in the form of artifacts that have been illegally stolen from Peru and Mexico and which are to this date, illegally or legitimately kept in foreign locations. Peru's President Alan García and Mexico's Felipe Calderón signed a joint declaration in April 2011 aimed at deepening the two countries' friendship, cooperation, integration, trade, investments and the permanent fight against poverty and organized crime. The two countries aim to achieve a new model of integration within Latin America, and to represent a positive, realistic, and active example of integration amongst two "brotherly" nations.

 Nicaragua 28 June 1850
 Panama 2 March 1908 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 March 1908[196]
 Paraguay 5 February 1858 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 February 1858[197]
 Suriname 23 June 1978 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 June 1978[200]
 Trinidad and Tobago 5 February 1968 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 February 1968[202]
  • Peru has an embassy in Port of Spain.
  • Trinidad and Tobago is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.[148]
 United States 2 May 1826
  • The U.S. maintains an embassy in Lima, Peru.[148] There is a U.S. Consular Agency in Cuzco, and the USAID building is located in Lima.
 Uruguay 13 November 1858
 Venezuela 17 February 1853

In October 2021, the leftist government of Peru re-established diplomatic relations with the leftist Venezuelan government of President Nicolas Maduro after four years.[204]

Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
Afghanistan Afghanistan 27 September 2012
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 September 2012.[205]
  • Afghanistan is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Washington, D.C.
  • Peru is accredited to Afghanistan from its non-resident embassy in New Delhi.
  • Peru has not recognized nor established relations with the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
 Armenia 9 September 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 September 1992.[206]
 Azerbaijan 25 June 1996 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 June 1996[207]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Lima.[148]
  • Peru has an embassy in Baku.
 Bahrain 22 September 2009 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 22 September 2009[208]
  • Bahrain is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.
 Bangladesh 28 February 1983
  • Bangladesh is accredited to Peru from its embassy in New York City.[148]
  • Peru is accredited to Bangladesh from its embassy in Bangkok.
China China 2 November 1971 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 2 November 1971[209]
Countries which signed cooperation documents related to the Belt and Road Initiative
 China (ROC) 26 June 1874, broken 2 November 1971
 Georgia 14 January 2010

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 January 2010[210]

  • Georgia is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.[148]
  • Peru has an honorary consulate in Tbilisi.
 India 25 March 1963 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 March 1963[211]
 Indonesia 12 August 1975 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 August 1975[212]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Lima.[148]
  • Peru has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Iran 20 November 1973 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 November 1973[213]
 Iraq 11 October 1975 and 11 July 2012 renew diplomatic relations
  • Peru and Iraq agreed to renew their bilateral ties in 2012.
  • Iraq is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Caracas.[148]
 Israel 20 August 1957
 Japan 21 August 1873 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 August 1873.[218]
 Kazakhstan 6 February 1997
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 February 1997[221]
 Kuwait 1 December 1975

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 December 1975[222]

 Malaysia 24 April 1986 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 April 1986[223]
 Mongolia 30 May 1997 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 May 1997[224]
  • Mongolia is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Havana.[148]
  • Peru is accredited to Mongolia from its embassy in Beijing.
   Nepal 28 January 1976 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 January 1976[225]
  • Nepal is accredited to Peru from its embassy in New York City.[148]
  • Peru is accredited to Nepal from its embassy in India.
 North Korea 15 December 1988 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 December 1988[226]
  • North Korea has an embassy in Lima.
  • Diplomatic relationships between both countries are suspended since 2017.
 Palestine 30 April 2011
  • Peru recognized Palestine on 24 January 2011.[227]
  • Palestine has an embassy in Lima.[148]
 Philippines 30 November 1974 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 30 November 1974[228]
 Qatar 7 November 1989

At an official level, both countries began diplomatic relations in 1989.[229]

  • Peru has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Lima.[148]
 Saudi Arabia 19 March 1986[156]
 Singapore 27 October 1980 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 October 1980[230]
  • Singapore is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Singapore.[148]
  • Peru has an embassy in Singapore.
 South Korea 1 April 1963 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 April 1963[231]
 Thailand 10 November 1965 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 November 1965.[232]
  • Peru has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in Lima.
 Turkey 1952[233]
  • Peru has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.[233]
  • Turkey has an embassy in Lima.[148][233]
  • Trade volume between the two countries was US$250 million in 2019 (Peruvian exports/imports: 72.6/177.4 million USD).[233]
 United Arab Emirates 17 June 1986
 Uzbekistan 22 December 1999
  • Peru and Uzbekistan established bilateral relations on 22 December 1999[234]
 Vietnam 14 November 1994 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 November 1994[235]

Europe[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 6 December 1971 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 December 1971[236]
  • Peru and Albania established formal relations in 1971.
  • Albania is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília.[148]
  • Peru is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Athens. Until its dissolution, Peru was accredited from its embassy in Yugoslavia.
 Andorra 3 June 1997 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 June 1997[237]
  • Andorra does not hold an embassy in Peru.
  • Peru is accredited to Andorra from its embassy in Madrid, Spain.
 Austria 2 November 1949[238]
  • Austria has an embassy in Lima, and honorary consulates in Cuzco, Trujillo, Iquitos, and Arequipa.[148]
  • Peru has an embassy in Vienna, and consulates in Innsbruck and Salzburg.[239]
 Belarus 19 February 1997 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 February 1997[240] In 1999, Foreign Minister Sergei Martynov visited Peru.[241]
  • Belarus is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Buenos Aires.[148]
  • Peru is accredited to Belarus from its embassy in Moscow.
 Belgium 1 April 1852
  • Belgium has an embassy in Lima.[148]
  • Peru has an embassy in Brussels.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 23 January 1998 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 January 1998[242]
  • Peru is accredited to Bosnia and Herzegovina from its embassy in Budapest.
 Bulgaria 18 April 1969 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 April 1969[243]
 Croatia 12 January 1993 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 January 1993[245]
 Cyprus 19 September 1966
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 September 1966.[246][247] On October of the same year, relations were elevated to embassy level.[248]
  • Cyprus is represented in Peru through its embassy in Brasilia, Brazil.[148][249]
  • Peru is accredited to Cyprus from it missions in Italy.
 Czech Republic 11 July 1922, broken 4 October 1957, restored 27 December 1968 ( with Czech Republic from 2 January 1993)

Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 27 December 1968[250]

Denmark
 Estonia 27 July 1995 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 July 1995[253]
 Finland 29 March 1963 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 March 1963[255]
 European Union 2000[256]
  • The European Union has a consulate in Lima.[148]
  • Peru has a section of its Ministry of Foreign Affairs dedicated to the European Union, as well as diplomatic relationships with its members.
 France 1826
 Germany 28 June 1951
(Federal Republic)
28 December 1972 – 1990
(Democratic Republic)
Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 June 1871.[257]
 Greece 3 December 1965
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 December 1965[258]
  • Greece has an embassy in Lima.[148]
  • Peru has an embassy in Athens.
 Hungary 16 April 1969

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 April 1969[259]

  • Peru has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Lima.[148]
 Iceland 14 November 1967 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 November 1967[260]
  • Iceland is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Oslo.[148]
  • Peru is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Oslo.
 Ireland 27 June 1999

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 June 1999[261]

  • Ireland is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Mexico City and maintains an honorary consulate in Lima.[148]
  • Peru has an embassy in Dublin. Until 2017, the ambassador resided in London.
 Italy 23 December 1874 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 December 1874[262]
 Latvia 23 July 1996 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 July 1996[265]
  • Latvia is accredited to Peru through its embassy in Berlin.
  • Peru is accredited to Latvia through its embassy in Helsinki.
 Liechtenstein 5 July 1996 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 July 1996[266]
  • Liechtenstein does not have an embassy accredited to Peru.
  • Peru is accredited to Liechtenstein from its embassy in Bern.
 Lithuania 9 June 1997 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 June 1997[267]
  • Peru is accredited to Lithuania from its embassy in Helsinki.
 Luxembourg 14 June 1962 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 June 1962[268][269]
  • Luxembourg is accredited to Peru through its embassy in Berlin.
  • Peru is accredited to Luxembourg from its embassy in Brussels.
 Malta 27 April 1977 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 April 1977[270]
 Netherlands 1 February 1826
 Norway 3 August 1923

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 August 1923[271]

  • Peru has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has a consulate-general in Lima and is accredited from its embassy in Santiago, Chile.[148]
 Poland 6 September 1923 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 September 1923.[272] Peru refused to recognize the Polish government in London on December 29, 1945. Peru and Poland re-established diplomatic relations on 14 April 1969.[273]
 Portugal 26 March 1853

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 26 March 1853[276]

  • Peru has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Lima.[148]
 Romania 10 October 1939, broken 5 March 1942, Re-established diplomatic relations 9 November 1968
  • Romania has an embassy in Lima and an honorary consulate in Arequipa.[148]
  • The Republic of Peru has an embassy and an honorary consulate, both in Bucharest.

Diplomatic relations' level:

  • Legation: October 10, 1939 – March 5, 1942
  • Embassy: since November 9, 1968

Diplomatic relations' timeline:

  • October 10, 1939 – March 5, 1942
  • since November 9, 1968[277]
 Russia 16 May 1874 to 1918
1 February 1969
 San Marino 24 February 2005 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 24 February 2005[280]
  • San Marino is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Rome.[148]
  • Peru is accredited to San Marino from its missions in Italy.
 Serbia 10 December 1968
  • Diplomatic relations between then Yugoslavia and Peru existed before the Second World War. They were renewed on 10 December 1968.
  • Serbia is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Buenos Aires.[148][281]
  • Peru is accredited to Serbia from its embassy in Budapest.[282]
 Slovakia 1 January 1993
  • Slovakia is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Buenos Aires.[148]
  • Peru is accredited to Slovakia from its embassy in Vienna.
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 15 April 1953
  • The Sovereign Military Order of Malta has an embassy in Lima.[148]
  • Peru is accredited to the Sovereign Military Order of Malta from its embassy in the Holy See.
 Spain 15 November 1879 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 November 1879[283]
 Sweden 11 February 1938 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 11 February 1938.[286]
  • Peru has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Santiago, Chile.[287]
  Switzerland 16 September 1884
  • Peru has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Lima.[148]
 Ukraine 7 May 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 May 1992[288]
  • Peru was accredited to Ukraine from its embassy in Warsaw, Poland. It was formerly accredited from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Lima.[148]
 United Kingdom 10 October 1823 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 October 1823.[289]
 Vatican City 1 November 1852

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1 March 1963 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 March 1963[290]

Both countries have an expanding relationship in all areas. In February 2018 trade ministers from both Peru and Australia signed a free trade agreement.[291] Until 2019, the Peruvian ambassador was also accredited to New Zealand.[292]

 Fiji 1983[97]
 New Zealand 4 July 1972 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 July 1972[293]
 Papua New Guinea 14 September 1983 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 September 1983[294]
  • Peru is accredited to Papua New Guinea from its consulate-general in Sydney.

Transnational issues[edit]

Illicit drugs[edit]

Until recently the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru has reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 24% to 387 km2 at the end of 1999; most of cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia, Bolivia, and Brazil for processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are increasing by maritime conveyance to Mexico, US, and Europe.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Schenoni, Luis (2017) "Subsystemic Unipolarities?" in Strategic Analysis, 41(1): 74-86 [1]
  2. ^ "Peru - Countries - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov.
  3. ^ "Relaciones Bilaterales". Embajada de Colombia en Perú (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  4. ^ "Síntesis de las Relaciones Bilaterales Chile -Perú" (PDF). obtienearchivo.bcn.cl (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 June 2023.
  5. ^ "Hoy se conmemoran 200 años del establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y México". Cancillería Perú (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  6. ^ "Perú y Reino Unido celebran 200 años del establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas". gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  7. ^ "Bolivia y Perú avanzan en reuniones técnicas". Ministerio Relaciones Exteriores (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  8. ^ Fabian Novak, Sandra Namihas. "Las Relaciones entre El Peru y Brasil (1826-2012)" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 25. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  9. ^ "All Countries". Office of the Historian. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  10. ^ "Estudio del conflicto Perú-Ecuador (1941-1942) con base en el análisis hemerografico del diario La Industria (enero 1941 - febrero 1942)" (PDF). Universidad de Piura (in Spanish). p. 30. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  11. ^ Libro amarillo correspondiente al año ...: presentado al Congreso Nacional en sus sesiones ordinarias de ... por el titular despacho (in Spanish). Venezuela. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. 2003. pp. 528–529.
  12. ^ Memoria (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Peru. 1847. p. 40. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  13. ^ Annales parlementaires de Belgique: Session législative de ..., Volume 1 (in French). Belgium. Parlement. Chambre des représentants. 1851. p. 213.
  14. ^ "En esta fecha se cumplen 170 años de relaciones diplomáticas con la República del Perú". Ministerio Relaciones Exteriores y Culto (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  15. ^ "RELACIONES BILATERALES" (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  16. ^ "Tratado de Comercio y Navegacion y Protocolo de 08 de Enero de 1863 entre Per y Portugal. 26/03/1853". dipublico.org (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  17. ^ "165 años de relaciones diplomáticas 20 de Abril de 1857 Guatemala - Peru". Minex Guatemala (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  18. ^ "163 años del establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y El Salvador, iniciadas el 10 de julio de 1857". cultura24.tv (in Spanish). July 10, 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  19. ^ Coleccion de leyes, decretos y ordenes publicadas en el Peru desde el año de 1821 hasta 31 de diciembre de 1859: Ministerio de relaciones exterior es (in Spanish). 1862. p. 399.
  20. ^ "Estado de la Relacion Bilateral". Embajada Paraguay en Perú (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2023.
  21. ^ Annales du commerce extérieur 23 (in French). mpr. et librairie administratives. 1832. p. 365.
  22. ^ Annuario diplomatico del Regno d'Italia ... (in Italian). Italia : Ministero degli affari esteri. 1886. p. 57. Retrieved 26 October 2023.
  23. ^ "148º aniversario del establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y Japón". gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  24. ^ "Hoy se celebran 149 años de relaciones diplomáticas con la República Dominicana, nación con la que mantenemos una histórica relación de amistad, cooperación y entendimiento mutuo". Cancillería Perú (in Spanish). April 6, 2023. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  25. ^ "Diplomatic relations of the Holy See". Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  26. ^ "Relación bilateral entre Perú y España". gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  27. ^ "Relaciones políticas entre Perú y Suiza". Embajada del Perú en Suiza y Liechtenstein. Archived from the original on 2022-12-30. Retrieved 2024-01-07.
  28. ^ "Biblioteca Digital de Tratados" (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  29. ^ Boletin oficial (in Spanish). Vol. 2–5. Cuba. Departamento de Estado. 1908. pp. 68–70.
  30. ^ "RELACIONES DIPLOMÁTICAS DE LA REPÚBLICA DE PANAMÁ" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 196. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 6, 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  31. ^ Discursos y documentos oficiales en el primer centenario de la independencia nacional, MCMXXI (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. 1921. p. 167.
  32. ^ Petruf, Pavol. Československá zahraničná politika 1945 – 1992 (in Slovak). pp. 99–119.
  33. ^ "Norges opprettelse af diplomatiske forbindelser med fremmede stater" (PDF). regjeringen.no (in Norwegian). April 27, 1999. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  34. ^ "Establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre el Peru y Polonia". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  35. ^ "Perú-Suecia" (PDF). gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 October 2023.
  36. ^ "Diplomatic Relations of Romania". Ministerul Afacerilor Externe. Retrieved 28 December 2023.
  37. ^ Boletin del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores (in Spanish). Vol. 137–138. Peru. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. 1940. p. 306.
  38. ^ "A Guide to Canadian Diplomatic Relations 1925-2019". Canadian Global Affairs Institute. Retrieved 25 June 2023.
  39. ^ "Relaciones Bilaterales". Embajada de Austria en Lima.
  40. ^ "Mensaje a la Nacion del Presidente del Peru, General Manuel A. Odria Amoretti, 27 de Julio de 1949" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2024.
  41. ^ "Länder" (in German). Retrieved 23 July 2023.
  42. ^ "Las relaciones diplomáticas con Turquía, establecidas en 1952 (Cancillería Perú)".
  43. ^ "Jefe del Estado recibe cartas credenciales de embajador de la orden de Malta" (in Spanish). 26 June 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
  44. ^ Memoria (28 de Julio de 1956 - 31 de Diciembre de 1957) (in Spanish). Peru. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. 1957. p. 63.
  45. ^ Israel Government Year Book. Central Office of Information, Prime Minister's Office. 1958. p. 259.
  46. ^ "Bulletin de documentation_1962_6" (PDF). sip.gouvernement.lu (in French). p. 24. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  47. ^ "Relaciones diplomáticas Perú-Australia". elperuano.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  48. ^ "NORMAS LEGALES". Publicacion Oficial - Diario Oficial El Peruano (in Spanish). p. 2. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  49. ^ "Finland and Peru". finlandabroad.fi. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  50. ^ "Comunicado conjunto de establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre del Peru y la Republica de Corea". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  51. ^ "El 7 de octubre de 2023 se conmemora el 60° aniversario del establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y Egipto, nación con la cual nuestro país mantiene una histórica relación de amistad, cooperación y entendimiento mutuo". Embajada del Perú en Egipto (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  52. ^ "Canciller recibio al presidente de la Camara de Representantes de Marruecos". rree.gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  53. ^ Africa Research Bulletin. Blackwell. 1964. p. 136.
  54. ^ "สาธารณรัฐเปรู (Peru)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Thailand (in Thai). Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  55. ^ "Relaciones bilaterales Perú - Grecia". Embajada del Peru en Grecia (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  56. ^ García, Hernan Alejandro Olano (2015). "Cyprus relations with Latin American countries The Colombian case" (PDF). Cidem Panama: 147.
  57. ^ "Vicecanciller se reúne con el Exministro de Relaciones Exteriores de Etiopía y candidato a Director General de la OMS". gob.pe. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  58. ^ "Iceland - Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". Government of Iceland. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  59. ^ "Remarks delivered by the Minister of Foreign and Caricom Affairs of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago at the commemoration of the 196th anniversary of the independence of the Republic of Peru" (PDF). foreign.gov.tt. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  60. ^ "List of countries with which Barbados has established diplomatic relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade (Barbados). Archived from the original on 13 August 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  61. ^ Soviet Foreign Policy: 1945-1980. Progress Publishers. 1981. pp. 642–681.
  62. ^ "Acuerdo para establecer relaciones diplomaticas entre el Peru y Hungria". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  63. ^ "Acuerdo para establecer relaciones diplomaticas entre el Peru y Bulgaria". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  64. ^ Report on World Affairs. Vol. 34. 1983. p. 13.
  65. ^ "Countries with which Jamaica has Established Diplomatic Relations". 16 April 2021. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  66. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts: Non-Arab Africa. British Broadcasting Corporation. Monitoring Service. 1970. p. 5.
  67. ^ "Acuerdo sobre establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y la Republica General de Nigeria". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  68. ^ "Countries With Which Guyana Has Established Diplomatic Relations". minfor.gov.gy. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  69. ^ "Acuerdo entre el Peru y China para el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  70. ^ "Acuerdo para el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre el Peru y Albania". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  71. ^ "50° Aniversario del establecimiento de Relaciones Diplomáticas entre el Perú y Argelia". gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  72. ^ "Acuerdo sobre establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y Nueva Zelandia". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  73. ^ Iran Almanac and Book of Facts. Echo of Iran. 1974. p. 190.
  74. ^ Energy - Peru establishes relations, signs oil accord with Libya. State Department. 1974. Retrieved 27 December 2023.
  75. ^ Boletín trimestral - Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores (in Spanish). Peru. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. 1974. p. 345. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
  76. ^ "Comunicado conjunto sobre el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y la Republica de Filipinas". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  77. ^ Información política mensual - Issues 28-39 (in Spanish). Desco, Centro de Estudios y Promoción del Desarrollo. Area de Estudios Políticos. 1975. pp. 75–5.
  78. ^ "Diplomatic relations". Retrieved 10 July 2022.
  79. ^ a b c d Current Background Issues 1035-1040. American Consulate General. 1975. p. 69. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  80. ^ Laurent Klein, Brigitte Klein. "Chronologie des faits internationaux d'ordre juridique — 1975". persee.fr (in French). p. 1118. Retrieved 6 October 2023.
  81. ^ "Country Profile and Bilateral Cooperation, Republic of Peru". Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia in Lima. Archived from the original on April 18, 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  82. ^ Revista de política internacional - Issues 140-142 (in Spanish). Centro de Estudios Constitucionales. 1975. p. 319.
  83. ^ "Peru-Endless Possibilities". timeskuwait.com. May 11, 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  84. ^ "Peru, Iraq agree to renew diplomatic relations". Andina. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  85. ^ "Nepal – Peru Relations". mofa.gov.np. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  86. ^ "Disponen la reapertura de la Embajada del Perú en Kenia". Diario Oficial del Bicentenario El Peruano (in Spanish). 8 September 2023. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  87. ^ "LIST OF MEMBER STATES OF THE UNITED NATIONS (193) HAVING DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH CAMBODIA". mfaic.gov.kh. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  88. ^ "Acuerdo para establecer relaciones diplomaticas, anexo comunicado conjunto entre el gobierno de la Republica del Peru y el gobierno de la Republica de Malta". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  89. ^ "Lijst van Diplomatieke Betrekkingen en Visum-afschaffingsovereenkomsten" (PDF). gov.sr (in Dutch). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  90. ^ "Acuerdo sobre el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y la Republica de Singapur". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  91. ^ "Acuerdo para el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre el Gobierno de la Republica del Peru y el Gobierno de la Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  92. ^ "Perú inaugura un consulado en Bangladesh". rpp.pe (in Spanish). 29 November 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  93. ^ CEDOI-PL publicación del Centro de Documentación e Información de Prensa Latina (in Spanish). El Centro. 1983. p. 10.
  94. ^ Jennie K Lincoln, Elizabeth G Ferris. The Dynamics Of Latin American Foreign Policies Challenges For The 1980s. 2019.
  95. ^ "14 de Setiembre de 1983. Perú y Papúa Nueva Guinea han decidido establecer relaciones diplomáticas" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  96. ^ Revista peruana de derecho internacional (in Spanish). Vol. 40. Sociedad Peruana de Derecho Internacional. 1988. p. 343.
  97. ^ a b Ferrero Costa, Eduardo (1989). América Latina, El Perú y las nuevas relaciones económicas internacionales. Peru: Centro Peruano de Estudios Internacionales. p. 104.
  98. ^ Latin America Report. Executive Office of the President], Federal Broadcast Information Service. Joint Publications Research Service. 1984. p. 97.
  99. ^ "Countries with Established Diplomatic Relations with Samoa". mfat.gov.ws. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  100. ^ Revista peruana de derecho internacional: órgano de la Sociedad Peruana de Derecho Internacional (in Spanish). Vol. 40. Impr. Torres Aguirre. 1988. p. 343.
  101. ^ "Chronology of Antigua and Barbuda's bilateral relations". Government of Antigua and Barbuda. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  102. ^ "Comunicado sobre el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y la Republica Popular de Angola". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  103. ^ Muñoz, Heraldo (1987). Las Políticas exteriores de America latina y el Caribe: continuidad en la crisis (in Spanish). Grupo Editor Latinoamericano. p. 278. ISBN 9789509432864.
  104. ^ "List of countries with which Saint Lucia has established Diplomatic Relations". Archived from the original on 16 July 2023. Retrieved 16 July 2023.
  105. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag "Diplomatic relations between Peru and ..." United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  106. ^ Daily Report: Latin America - volume 86,issue 51–61. Foreign Broadcast Information Service. 1986. p. 3.
  107. ^ "Arabia Saudita abrirá embajada en Perú para consolidar relación bilateral". ANDINA Agencia Peruana de Noticias. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  108. ^ "HISTORY". Embassy of Malaysia, Lima. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  109. ^ "Relaciones Bilaterales". UAE Embassy in Lima. Retrieved 24 April 2023.
  110. ^ Marchés tropicaux et méditerranéens - Issues 2134-2146 (in French). 1986. p. 2559.
  111. ^ "Establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Perú. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
  112. ^ Cronología de las relaciones internacionales del Perú . Vol. 2 (in Spanish). Centro Peruano de Estudios Internacionales. 1989.
  113. ^ "Acuerdo entre el gobierno de la Republica Popular Democratica de Corea y el gobierno de la Republica del Peru para el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  114. ^ "الإعفاء من التأشيرة يعزز علاقات قطر وبيرو - جريدة الراية". Retrieved 20 June 2023.
  115. ^ "Tratado Internacional Ejecutivo № 208" (PDF). leyes.congreso.gob.pe. p. 96 / 121. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  116. ^ "LISTING OF ALL COUNTRIES WHICH HAVE ESTABLISHED DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH THE REPUBLIC OF THE MARSHALL ISLANDS (As of 13 February 2019)". rmiembassyus.org. Archived from the original on 18 July 2023. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  117. ^ "Peru - Bilateral Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  118. ^ Đogić, Mojca Pristavec (September 2016). "Priznanja samostojne Slovenije" (PDF) (in Slovenian). Retrieved 11 July 2023.
  119. ^ "Štáty a teritóriá" (in Slovak). Retrieved 26 May 2023.
  120. ^ "Bilateral relations - Date of Recognition and Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Croatia. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  121. ^ "Transition (1990 - 1994) - Chronologies: 1993". omalley.nelsonmandela.org. Retrieved 5 September 2023.
  122. ^ "Diplomaatiliste suhete (taas)kehtestamise kronoloogia" (in Estonian). 30 January 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  123. ^ "Bilateral relations". MFA Moldova. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  124. ^ "ESTABLECIMIENTO DE RELACIONES DIPLOMÁTICAS ENTRE LA REPÚBLICA DEL PERÚ Y EL PRINCIPADO DE LIECHTENSTEIN" (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  125. ^ "Comunicado conjunto sobre el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre el Peru y Kazajstan". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  126. ^ "Comunicado conjunto sobre el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y la Republica de Belarus". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  127. ^ "Comunicado conjunto sobre establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y Turkmenistan". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  128. ^ "Comunicado conjunto sobre establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y Bosnia Herzegovina". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  129. ^ "Comunicado conjunto entre la Republica del Peru y la Republica de Mali para el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  130. ^ "Ricardo V. Luna presenta cartas credenciales como embajador de Perú ante Irlanda" (in Spanish). andina. 26 February 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  131. ^ "Acuerdo sobre el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas con la Republica Democratica de Timor Oriental". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  132. ^ "Lista del Cuerpo Diplomático, Organismos Internacionales y Cuerpo Consular" (PDF) (in Spanish). July 2013. p. 216. Retrieved 2 September 2023.
  133. ^ "Rapporti bilaterali della Repubblica di San Marino" (in Italian). Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  134. ^ "Establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica de Montenegro y la Republica del Peru". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  135. ^ "Perú inició oficialmente relaciones diplomáticas con el Principado de Mónaco". andina.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  136. ^ "Lista del Cuerpo Diplomático, Organismos Internacionales y Cuerpo Consular - Julio 2013" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 120. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  137. ^ "Perú y Afganistán acuerdan establecer relaciones diplomáticas". rpp.pe (in Spanish). 27 September 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2023.
  138. ^ "Cook Islands formalises links with third Latin nation". Cook Islands News. 2017-10-06. Archived from the original on 2017-10-08. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
  139. ^ "Establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre Perú y Benín". gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  140. ^ "Establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre Perú y Ruanda". gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  141. ^ "Establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre Perú y Togo". gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  142. ^ "Establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre Perú y Yibuti". gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  143. ^ "Perú y Palaos establecen relaciones diplomáticas" (in Spanish). 14 February 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  144. ^ "El Perú y Niue establecen relaciones diplomáticas". Government of Peru (in Spanish). 3 July 2020. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  145. ^ "Embajadora del Perú presenta cartas credenciales ante Gobernadora General de San Cristóbal y Nieves" (in Spanish). 25 April 2023. Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  146. ^ "Peru increases footprint in Africa". The DIplomatic Society. 3 August 2023. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  147. ^ "50° Aniversario del establecimiento de Relaciones Diplomáticas entre el Perú y Argelia". gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  148. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx Directorio de misiones extranjeras en Perú - Guia Diplomática (PDF) (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2022. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2022-12-28. Retrieved 2022-12-28.
  149. ^ "Comunicado sobre el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y la Republica Popular de Angola". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  150. ^ "El 7 de octubre de 2023 se conmemora el 60° aniversario del establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y Egipto, nación con la cual nuestro país mantiene una histórica relación de amistad, cooperación y entendimiento mutuo". Embajada del Perú en Egipto (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  151. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Peru and Ghana as of 23 June 1987". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  152. ^ Ejecutivo dispone la reapertura de la Embajada del Perú en Kenia (in Spanish)
  153. ^ Energy - Peru establishes relations, signs oil accord with Libya. State Department. 1974. Retrieved 27 December 2023.
  154. ^ "Canciller recibio al presidente de la Camara de Representantes de Marruecos". rree.gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  155. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Peru and Namibia as of 11 July 1990". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  156. ^ a b Muñoz, Heraldo (1987). Las Políticas exteriores de America latina y el Caribe: continuidad en la crisis (in Spanish). Grupo Editor Latinoamericano. p. 278. ISBN 9789509432864. En lo que respecta al Africa sahariana y el Medio Oriente, además de la reapertura de la Embajada del Perú en Marruecos, se han establecido relaciones diplomáticas con Arabia Saudita en abril de 1986, con Bahrein y Oman en mayo de 1986 y con los Emiratos Árabes Unidos en junio de 1986. Además, se han establecido relaciones con el Reino Hachemita de Jordania en octubre de 1985, con Malasia en abril de 1986 y finalmente con la SWAPO, Movimiento de Liberación del pueblo de Namibia.
  157. ^ "Acuerdo sobre establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y la Republica General de Nigeria". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  158. ^ "Comunicado Oficial". Gob.pe. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. 2023-09-08.
  159. ^ "Establecimientos de relaciones diplomaticas entre el Peru y la Republica Arabe Saharaui Democratica". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  160. ^ "Establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Perú. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
  161. ^ Ricardo Sánchez Serra (2011-11-28). "Los saharauis y el Perú" (in Spanish).
  162. ^ Ricardo Sánchez Serra (2008-12-11). "El estoicismo del pueblo saharaui" (in Spanish). La Razón.
  163. ^ "Restablecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas con la RASD". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Peru. 2021-09-08. Retrieved 2021-09-08.
  164. ^ "Perú rompe relaciones con la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática luego de un año". Gestión. 2022-08-18.
  165. ^ "Comunicado Oficial del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores". Gob.pe. 2022-09-15.
  166. ^ "Transition (1990 - 1994) - Chronologies: 1993". omalley.nelsonmandela.org. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  167. ^ Muñoz, Heraldo (1987). Las Políticas exteriores de America latina y el Caribe: continuidad en la crisis (in Spanish). Grupo Editor Latinoamericano. p. 278. ISBN 9789509432864. Respecto a Sudáfrica, a los pocos días de haber asumido el cargo, el Canciller Wagner anunció haber cerrado el Consulado del Perú en la Ciudad del Cabo, como una demostración de condena al apartheid y de rechazo al neo-colonialismo y la discriminación racial. Asimismo, en 1985 el gobierno peruano condenó en Naciones Unidas el ataque realizado por fuerzas sudafricanas contra supuestas bases de guerrilleros en Angola y luego exigió ante el Consejo de Seguridad la imposición de severas sanciones contra el gobierno de Sudáfrica por su política de discriminación racial.
  168. ^ Summary of World Broadcasts: Non-Arab Africa. British Broadcasting Corporation. Monitoring Service. 1970. p. 5.
  169. ^ a b Mariátegui, Juan (1997). El diferendo fronterizo Perú-Ecuador (1994-1997): reflexiones en voz alta (in Spanish). J. Mariátegui. p. 280. Cuando él [Alberto Fujimori] fue presidente, en julio de 1990, existían seis embajadas en Africa. Luego, unos meses después suprimió cuatro (Kenia, Zimbabwe, Zambia y Argelia), quedando hasta el presente, Marruecos y Egipto.
  170. ^ "Embajada de la República Argentina en República del Perú - Embassy of Argentina in Lima (in Spanish)". eperu.cancilleria.gov.ar. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  171. ^ "Embassy of Peru in Buenos Aires (in Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2014-11-05. Retrieved 2014-11-13.
  172. ^ "Bolivia y Perú avanzan en reuniones técnicas". Ministerio Relaciones Exteriores (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  173. ^ Fabian Novak, Sandra Namihas. "Las Relaciones entre El Peru y Brasil (1826-2012)" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 25. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  174. ^ "A Guide to Canadian Diplomatic Relations 1925-2019". Canadian Global Affairs Institute. Retrieved 25 June 2023.
  175. ^ "Canadian embassy in Lima". Archived from the original on 2008-12-10. Retrieved 2009-05-22.
  176. ^ "Inicio Embajada del Perú en Canadá - Peruvian embassy in Ottawa". embassyofperu.ca. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  177. ^ Alexander Panetta, "Canada limits main foreign aid recipients to 20 countries", Canada East website (accessed 3 March2009)
  178. ^ "Síntesis de las Relaciones Bilaterales Chile -Perú" (PDF). obtienearchivo.bcn.cl (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 June 2023.
  179. ^ "Relaciones Bilaterales". Embajada de Colombia en Perú (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  180. ^ "En esta fecha se cumplen 170 años de relaciones diplomáticas con la República del Perú". Ministerio Relaciones Exteriores y Culto (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  181. ^ Boletin oficial (in Spanish). Vol. 2–5. Cuba. Departamento de Estado. 1908. pp. 68–70.
  182. ^ "Hoy se celebran 149 años de relaciones diplomáticas con la República Dominicana, nación con la que mantenemos una histórica relación de amistad, cooperación y entendimiento mutuo". Cancillería Perú (in Spanish). April 6, 2023. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  183. ^ "Estudio del conflicto Perú-Ecuador (1941-1942) con base en el análisis hemerografico del diario La Industria (enero 1941 - febrero 1942)" (PDF). Universidad de Piura (in Spanish). p. 30. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  184. ^ "Perú exportará energía eléctrica a Ecuador hasta abril de 2010". Archived from the original on 2009-12-20. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  185. ^ http://www.peru.com/economiayfinanzas/noticias20091114/66081/Presidente-de-Ecuador-Rafael-Correa-agradece-cooperacion-de-Peru-en-crisis-energetica-[permanent dead link]
  186. ^ "163 años del establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y El Salvador, iniciadas el 10 de julio de 1857". cultura24.tv (in Spanish). July 10, 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  187. ^ "165 años de relaciones diplomáticas 20 de Abril de 1857 Guatemala - Peru". Minex Guatemala (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  188. ^ "Countries With Which Guyana Has Established Diplomatic Relations". minfor.gov.gy. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  189. ^ "Consulates: PERU". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation.
  190. ^ "MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS STATEMENT — BY HON. CARL GREENIDGE, VICE PRESIDENT AND MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS AT THE EIGHT SUMMIT OF THE AMERICAS, LIMA, PERU, APRIL 14, 2018". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. 2018-04-14.
  191. ^ Sella, Orlando Enrique (1996). La caída de Aristide: crónica de una frustración popular (in Spanish). Escuela de Relaciones Internacionales, Universidad Nacional. p. 246.
  192. ^ "Countries with which Jamaica has Established Diplomatic Relations". mfaft.gov.jm. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  193. ^ "Hoy se conmemoran 200 años del establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y México". Cancillería Perú (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  194. ^ "Embassy of Mexico in Lima (in Spanish)". embamex.sre.gob.mx. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  195. ^ "Consulado General del Perú - Embassy of Peru in Mexico City (in Spanish)". consuladodelperu.com.mx. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  196. ^ "RELACIONES DIPLOMÁTICAS DE LA REPÚBLICA DE PANAMÁ" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 196. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 6, 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  197. ^ "Estado de la Relacion Bilateral". Embajada Paraguay en Perú (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2023.
  198. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of Peru in Paraguay".
  199. ^ "Peruvian embassy in Asuncion (in Spanish only)". embperu.com.py. Archived from the original on 2012-02-24. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  200. ^ "Comunicado conjunto del Peru y de Suriname para el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  201. ^ "Peruvian, Surinamese leaders discuss bilateral ties". Andina. 2013-08-30.
  202. ^ "Remarks delivered by the Minister of Foreign and Caricom Affairs of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago at the commemoration of the 196th anniversary of the independence of the Republic of Peru" (PDF). foreign.gov.tt. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  203. ^ "Peruvian embassy in Montevideo (in Spanish only)". Archived from the original on 2002-02-10. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  204. ^ "Venezuela and Peru reestablish diplomatic relations after almost four years of intermittent communications". Market Research Telecast. 16 October 2021.
  205. ^ "Perú y Afganistán acuerdan establecer relaciones diplomáticas". rpp.pe (in Spanish). 27 September 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2023.
  206. ^ "Bilateral Relations". mfa.am. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  207. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Azerbaijan and Peru as of 25 June 1996". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  208. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Bahrain and Peru as of 22 Sept. 2009". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  209. ^ "Acuerdo entre el Peru y China para el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  210. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Peru and Georgia as of 14 Jan. 2010". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  211. ^ "NORMAS LEGALES". Publicacion Oficial - Diario Oficial El Peruano (in Spanish). p. 2. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  212. ^ "Country Profile and Bilateral Cooperation, Republic of Peru". Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia in Lima. Archived from the original on April 18, 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  213. ^ Iran Almanac and Book of Facts. Echo of Iran. 1974. p. 190.
  214. ^ Camacho Padilla, Fernando (2019). "Las relaciones entre Latinoamérica e Irán durante la última década de la dinastía Pahleví". Anuario de Historia de América Latina. 56: 66–96. doi:10.15460/jbla.56.133. S2CID 216521889.
  215. ^ Suárez Plasier, Humberto Antonio (2016-11-08). El Acuerdo Nuclear entre Irán y el P5 +1: desafíos y oportunidades de la relación bilateral Perú – Irán en el escenario post firma del acuerdo (Thesis). Academia Diplomática del Perú Javier Pérez de Cuéllar.
  216. ^ Portillo, Martín (2012-08-07). Relaciones entre Perú e Irán (Video) (in Spanish). Enfoque Derecho.
  217. ^ Betalleluz Cárdenas, Mariela (2018). La política exterior de Mahmud Ahmadinejad (2005-2013) hacia América del Sur: una aplicación del realismo Neo-clásico (Thesis). Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola.{{cite thesis}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  218. ^ "148º aniversario del establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y Japón". gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  219. ^ "Embassy of Japan in Lima (in Japanese and Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2017-11-05. Retrieved 2017-08-25.
  220. ^ "Embassy of Peru in Tokyo (in Japanese and Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2021-12-31.
  221. ^ "Comunicado conjunto sobre el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre el Peru y Kazajstan". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  222. ^ "Peru-Endless Possibilities". timeskuwait.com. May 11, 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  223. ^ "HISTORY". Embassy of Malaysia, Lima. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  224. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Mongolia and Peru as of 30 May 1997". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  225. ^ "Nepal – Peru Relations". mofa.gov.np. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
  226. ^ "Acuerdo entre el gobierno de la Republica Popular Democratica de Corea y el gobierno de la Republica del Peru para el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  227. ^ Government of Peru (24 January 2011). "Perú reconoce al Estado Palestino" (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 2011-01-30. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
  228. ^ "Comunicado conjunto sobre el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y la Republica de Filipinas". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  229. ^ "Qatar-Peru relations". Qatari Embassy in Lima. Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  230. ^ "Acuerdo sobre el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y la Republica de Singapur". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  231. ^ "Comunicado conjunto de establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre del Peru y la Republica de Corea". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  232. ^ "สาธารณรัฐเปรู (Peru)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Thailand (in Thai). Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  233. ^ a b c d "Relations between Turkey and Peru".
  234. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Peru and Uzbekistan as of 22 Dec. 1999". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  235. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Peru and Viet Nam as of 14 Nov. 1994". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  236. ^ "Acuerdo para el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre el Peru y Albania". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  237. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Andorra and Peru as of 3 June 1997". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  238. ^ "Relaciones Bilaterales". Embajada de Austria en Lima.
  239. ^ a b "PERU EMBASSIES & CONSULATES". Embassy Pages.
  240. ^ "Comunicado conjunto sobre el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y la Republica de Belarus". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  241. ^ "REUNIONES DEL PRESIDENTE DE LA COMISIÓN CON DELEGACIONES DE DIVERSOS PAÍSES Y CON DIPLOMÁTICOS PERUANOS EN EL EXTERIOR". Congress of Peru. Archived from the original on 2023-07-25. Retrieved 2023-08-14.
  242. ^ "Comunicado conjunto sobre establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y Bosnia Herzegovina". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  243. ^ "Acuerdo para establecer relaciones diplomaticas entre el Peru y Bulgaria". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  244. ^ "Министерство на външните работи - Bulgarian embassy in Brasilia (also accredited to Peru)". mfa.bg. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  245. ^ "Date of Recognition and Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". mvep.gov.hr. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  246. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-09-09.
  247. ^ "República de Chipre". Embajada del Perú en Italia.
  248. ^ Belaúnde Terry, Fernando (1967). El Perú construye: mensaje presentado al Congreso Nacional por el Presidente Constitucional de la República Fernando Belaúnde Terry (in Spanish). President of Peru. p. 85.
  249. ^ "MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS - Bilateral Relations - Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus". mfa.gov.cy. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  250. ^ "Acuerdo para establecer relaciones diplomaticas entre el Peru y Checoslovaquia". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  251. ^ "Celebran 95 años de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y la República Checa". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Peru. 2017-12-06.
  252. ^ "Perú cierra embajadas de Dinamarca, Bulgaria y Filipinas por austeridad" (in Spanish). El Universo. 28 July 2003. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  253. ^ "Comunicado conjunto entre la Republica del Peru y la Republica de Estonia para el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  254. ^ "Jefe de Estado presidió ceremonia virtual de presentación de cartas credenciales de los Embajadores concurrentes de distintos países". Andina. 2021-07-16.
  255. ^ "Finland and Peru". finlandabroad.fi. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  256. ^ Maurtua de Romaña, Oscar (2017). Las relaciones entre el Perú y la Unión Europea. Revista de Relaciones Internacionales de la UNAM.
  257. ^ "150 años del establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas Perú-Alemania". gob.pe (in Spanish). 3 June 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2023.
  258. ^ "Relaciones bilaterales Perú - Grecia". Embajada del Peru en Grecia (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  259. ^ "Acuerdo para establecer relaciones diplomaticas entre el Peru y Hungria". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  260. ^ "Acuerdo entre el Peru e Islandia para el establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas normales". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  261. ^ "Comunicado conjunto sobre establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru e Irlanda". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  262. ^ "Relaciones Político - Diplomáticas". Embajada del Peru en Italia (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 June 2023.
  263. ^ "Embajada de Italia en Lima - Embassy of Italy in Lima (in Italian and Spanish)". amblima.esteri.it. Retrieved 2016-06-13.
  264. ^ "Embassy of Peru in Rome (in Italian and Spanish)". Archived from the original on 2014-10-16. Retrieved 2014-11-13.
  265. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Peru and Latvia as of 23 July 1996". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  266. ^ "Establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y el Principado de Liechtenstein". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  267. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Lithuania and Peru as of 9 June 1997". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  268. ^ "Bulletin de documentation_1962_6" (PDF). sip.gouvernement.lu (in French). p. 24. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  269. ^ "Relaciones diplomáticas entre la República del Perú y el Gran Ducado de Luxemburgo" (PDF). Gob.pe. Embajada del Perú en el Reino de Bélgica y el Gran Ducado de Luxemburgo.
  270. ^ "Acuerdo para establecer relaciones diplomaticas, anexo comunicado conjunto entre el gobierno de la Republica del Peru y el gobierno de la Republica de Malta". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  271. ^ "Norges opprettelse af diplomatiske forbindelser med fremmede stater" (PDF). regjeringen.no (in Norwegian). April 27, 1999. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  272. ^ "Establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre el Peru y Polonia". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  273. ^ "Convenio para el establecimiento de las relaciones diplomaticas entre el Gobierno de Peru y el Gobierno de Polonia". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  274. ^ "Embassy of Peru in Warsaw".
  275. ^ "Embassy of Poland in Lima".
  276. ^ "Tratado de Comercio y Navegacion y Protocolo de 08 de Enero de 1863 entre Per y Portugal. 26/03/1853". dipublico.org (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  277. ^ "Acuerdo para establecer relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y Rumania". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  278. ^ "Archivos antiguos demuestran que relaciones entre Rusia y Perú iniciaron en 1863". Peru21. 2018-02-06. Retrieved 2021-09-05.
  279. ^ "Acuerdo para establecer relaciones diplomaticas entre el Peru y la URSS". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  280. ^ "Acuerdo entre la Republica del Peru y la Republica de San Marino sobre establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  281. ^ "Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Peru". Archived from the original on March 5, 2012.
  282. ^ "Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Perú - Portal Institucional" [Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations about the relation with Serbia]. Archived from the original on 2009-08-25.
  283. ^ "Relación bilateral entre Perú y España". gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  284. ^ "Embassy of Peru in Madrid".
  285. ^ "Embassy of Spain in Lima". Archived from the original on 2018-12-08. Retrieved 2017-02-23.
  286. ^ "Perú-Suecia" (PDF). gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 October 2023.
  287. ^ "Peru". Sweden Abroad.
  288. ^ "Diplomatic Relations Between Peru and Ukraine as of 7 May 1992". United Nations Digital Library. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  289. ^ "Perú y Reino Unido celebran 200 años del establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas". gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  290. ^ "Relaciones diplomáticas Perú-Australia". elperuano.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  291. ^ "Australia, Peru Sign Free Trade Agreement". Prensa Latina. 12 February 2018. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  292. ^ "Perú conmemora 50 años de relaciones diplomáticas con Nueva Zelanda". Andina. 2022-07-31.
  293. ^ "Acuerdo sobre establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre la Republica del Peru y Nueva Zelandia". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  294. ^ "Comunicado oficial sobre establecimiento de relaciones diplomaticas entre los gobiernos de la Republica del Peru y del estado soberano de Papua Nueva Guinea". Archivo Nacional de Tratados (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 June 2023.